Black Carbon
Saran Sohi, Climate Change and Carbon Cycling Research Group, Rothamsted Research, UK

Cornell University: Publications in Soil Fertility Management and Soil Biogeochemistry

Peer-reviewed publications in international journals
Book chapters
Edited books
Book Reviews
Conference proceedings
Conference abstracts

Long-Term Black Carbon (Bio-Char) Dynamics in Cultivated Soil
Binh Thanh Nguyen, Johannes Lehmann, and James Kinyangi. Cornell Univ, 1022 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853
18th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS) July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Bio-char (Black Carbon) Stability and Stabilization in Soil
Johannes Lehmann, Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY 14850 and Saran Sohi, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Black C Effects on the Biogeochemical Cycling of Soil Nutrients and Organic C in Amazonian Dark Earths (Terra Preta De Indo)
Biqing Liang, Graduate Student, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 9/21/2006,Crop and Soil Sciences Seminar Series, Cornell University. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

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THE NATURE, DISTRIBUTION, AND IMPACT OF CHARCOAL IN SOILS. J. O. Skjemstad, L. J. Janik,and L. R. Spouncer, CSIRO, Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064. Jan.Skjemstad@adl.clw.csiro.au. 1998

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Azotobacter is a genus of free-living diazotrophic bacteria whose resting stage is a cyst. It is primarily found in neutral to alkaline soils, in aquatic environments, and on some plants. It has several metabolic capabilties, including atmospheric nitrogen fixation by conversion to ammonia. Their unique system of three distinct nitrogenase enzymes makes these bacteria of particular interest to scientists, who may work toward a better understanding of nitrogen fixation and its role in agriculture. Azotobacter spp. have the highest metabolic rate of any organisms.

See: http://microbe

Saving The Planet While Saving The Farm
How soil carbonization could save the planet while it saves the family farm
Scott Bidstrup, Arenal de Tilaran, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, 2004

Introduction:
For a long time, soil geologists and archaeologists faced a mystery.

The mystery was a nagging one, but not an urgent problem that impelled soil scientists to travel to the Amazon jungles to solve. But it was an intriguing problem which was finally solved by an archaeological survey - a survey which involved soil geology.

For many years, it had been known that among the extremely weathered and infertile soils of the Amazon basin, some of the least-fertile soils on the planet, there are large, widespread patches of highly fertile soil. Soil that is not just fertile, but extremely fertile - so fertile and so valuable that for many years it has actually been mined and exported. What was the difference? The only visible difference was that the fertile soil is black, pitch-black, and grew just about anything with ease, and the infertile soils, just a few meters away, are a pale yellow color, and are so infertile that almost nothing except native weeds can grow in them.

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Application of Rice Husk Charcoal
See also:
WESVARRDEC, Western Visayas Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Regional Consortia

ADAPTABILITY OF THE TECHNOLOGY

This techology is best suited to small-scale farming, and to sandy, acidic and relatively infertile soils. It is effective for such crops as soybean, cowpea, corn and sorghum. It is also worth trying for other field crops and vegetables. Fig. 1 Tin can with ventilation holes and chimney

HOW TO PREPARE THE CHARCOAL
Prepare the rice husk charcoal as follows.

Russian and Ukrainian Manufacturers of Charcoal, Meeting March 14, 2007, St. Peterburg
Dr. Yury Yudkevich, main technologist "Bioenergy LLC"

DEAR FRIENDS,

Russian and Ukrainian manufacturers of charcoal have decided to organize a meeting. This meeting will take place in Petersburg on March, 14. They plan 1. to create association charcoalinger. 2. To develop the common strategy of sales of coal. 3. To study opportunities of a collective output on the foreign markets. Participation of wholesale consumers of charcoal from Europe and others is desirable.
I address to everyone who will show interes on behalf of organizers of a meeting. Our meeting is open for you. The translator from the English language and on the English language will work at a meeting. Organizers will help to order hotel. The meeting will take place as a part of the 7 international ecological forums.

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Black carbon in a temperate mixed-grass savanna
X. Daia, T.W. Boutton a,*, B. Glaser b, R.J. Ansley c, W. Zech b
Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37 (2005) 1879

USGS Soil Carbon Research Dr. Mark Waldrop
September 28, 2006

HOW DOES VARIATION IN MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND FUNCTION AFFECT CARBON CYCLING PROCESSES WITHIN BOREAL FORESTS?

WHAT CONTROLS MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND HOW DOES MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AFFECT SOIL FUNCTION?

IS BLACK CARBON DECOMPOSED BY SOIL MICROORGANISMS?

ARE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN PERMAFROST SOILS FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT THAN SURFACE SOILS? WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR DECOMPOSITION OF PERMAFROST CARBON?

HOW DOES A MOISTURE GRADIENT AND CLIMATE MANIPULATION AFFECT THE BIOMASS OF C CYCLING MICROBIAL FUNCTIONAL GROUPS?

An Investigation of Black Carbon Degradation Potential in a Forest Soil Environment
William, H. C.; Lee, E.; Grannas, A.; Hatcher, P. G.
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2003, abstract #B21B-0711, 12/2003

Abstract
Except for emission processes, there is currently little understanding of the mechanisms driving the degradation and biogeochemical cycling of black carbon (BC). Considering current estimates of the global BC pool (>2,500x1015gC), and its annual emission rates (55-205x1012 gC/year), BC represents roughly 16% of Earth's actively cycling organic carbon. Without significant chemical and biological degradation pathways, all of the actively cycling carbon on earth would have accumulated as charcoal in

Black Carbon from Rice Residues as Soil Amendment and for Carbon Sequestration
Stephan M. Haefele 1, J.K. Ladha 1, and Yothin Konboon 2.
(1) International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, 4031 Laguna, Philippines, (2) Ubon Rice Research Center, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand
18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

On highly weathered soils in tropical and subtropical climates, maintenance of soil organic matter is essential to sustain system productivity and avoid rapid soil degradation. But climatic conditions as well as soil characteristics favor the rapid decomposition of organic matter. However, several recent studies indicated that black carbon, the product of incomplete combustion of organic material, could combine characteristics highly beneficial for soil nutrient dynamics with high stability against chemical and microbial breakdown. Lasting soil amelioration by incorporation of black carbon from wooden plants was proposed based on the beneficial evidence from

Exploring Atypical Stabilization Pathways Using Pool-Based Modeling
Sohi, Saran, Yates, Helen, Lehmann, Johannes Liang, Biqing, Gaunt, John
Cornell University WCSS Poster 2006

Simulation models that explicitly account for the impact and interaction of soil and environmental variables can assist in predicting the accumulation of C and its rate of turnover. Relevant, verifiable (i.e. measurable) pools of Soil Organic Matter (SOM) provide the most robust basis for elucidating the underlying mechanisms. We have developed a model based around three measurable pools of SOM which can be measured using a density-based fractionation procedure, and verified by extensive chemical characterization. The model has been optimized against measurements of C and N and isotope-tracers in several soils amended with isotope-labeled organic matter. According to recent estimates black C is a much larger component of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) in typical agricultural soils than previously assumed. Since black C may also be the most stable form of organic C in the soil, the amount of black C in the soil must impact both on the bulk rate of soil C mineralization (turnover) and the extent to which a particular management intervention can alter SOC. Until now our simulations have not accounted explicitly for the effect of black C on the dynamics of each pool. We are now examining how black C is characterized by physical location within the soil matrix, and in order to account for the influence of black C using this model affects C mineralization, and the distribution of charcoal between each of the measured fractions.

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Isolating Unique Bacteria from Terra Preta Systems: Using Culturing and Molecular Tools for Characterizing Microbial Life in Terra Preta
O'Neill, Brendan Grossman, Julie Tsai, S.M. Gomes, Jose Elias Garcia, Carlos Eduardo Solomon, Dawit Liang, Biqing Lehmann, Johannes Thies, Janice
Poster presentation from the 2006 World Congress of Soil Science in Philadelphia, PA
16-Aug-2006

The greater fertility of Terra Preta (TP) soils is thought to be due to their high black carbon (BC) content, which contributes to increased nutrient and moisture retention, and increased pH.

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Black Carbon from Rice Residues as Soil Amendment and for Carbon Sequestration
Haefele, SM, Konboon, Y, Knoblauch, C, Koyama, S, Gummert, M, Ladha, JK
Cornell University Poster Presented to International Rice Research Institute, September 14 2006

On highly weathered soils in tropical and subtropical climates, maintenance of soil organic matter is essential to sustain system productivity and avoid rapid soil degradation. But climatic conditions as well as soil characteristics favor the rapid decomposition of organic matter. However, several recent studies indicated that black carbon, the product of incomplete combustion of organic material, could combine characteristics highly beneficial for soil nutrient dynamics with high stability against chemical and microbial breakdown.

Tracing black carbon in soil using SEM/EDX, biomarker analyses, and compound-specific radiocarbon analyses
S. Brodowski (1), P. M. Grootes (2), W. Zech (3), W. Amelung (1)

Mollisols are known to contain stable, black humus components which originate from
charred or coal-derived particles. As such black carbon (BC) significantly affects soil
fertility and interferes with models on soil organic matter dynamics, an accurate prediction of BC input into soils and an elucidation of the mechanisms of BC turnover
is essential. The main aims of this study were (i) to identify the sources of BC in the

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Black carbon in soils: The use of benzene polycarboxylic acids as specific indicators

Bruno Glaser, Ludwig Haumaier, Georg Guggenberger and Wolfgang Zech

Institute of Soil Science, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Germany. Fax: ++49-921-552246. Email: bruno.glaser@uni-bayreuth.de

Mitteilungen der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft (1997) 85: 237 - 240

1. Introduction

Black carbon (BC) is formed during incomplete combustion of biomass. Being highly resistant to microbial and chemical oxidation, it is considered to be a significant sink in the global carbon cycle. Most likely, it is also a source of stable aromatic carbon in soils.

Energy, the Carbon Cycle, and Enduring Greenhouse Gas Management
Duane Pendergast, IEEE, 2006

Abstract

Knowledge of energy has allowed humans to flourish in numbers unimaginable to our ancestors. Some are concerned that emissions from the fossil fuels we use will lead to changing climate with possibly disastrous consequences.

Many propose that we improve the efficiency of energy use and conserve resources to lessen greenhouse gas emissions and avoid climate catastrophe. It is unlikely such initiatives will have a perceptible effect on atmospheric greenhouse gas content.

Black in the New Green
Emma Marris, NATURE, Vol 442, 10 August 2006

"In 1879, the explorer Herbert Smith regaled the readers of Scribner

Soil erosion, energy scarcity, excess greenhouse gas all answered through regenerative carbon management
Paul Hepperly, The New Farm, Rodale Institute, January 12, 2006

Compost is great, but new bio-based process yields hydrogen and super-stable carbon as charcoal soil booster.

Dr. Paul's Research Perspectives
Soil erosion, energy scarcity, excess greenhouse gas
all answered through regenerative carbon management
Compost is great, but new bio-based process yields hydrogen and super-stable carbon as charcoal soil booster.

By Paul Hepperly

editors' NOTE:

As New Farm Research and Training Manager at The Rodale Institute

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Carbon Cycling: A sustainable path to food and energy (6.6 MB pdf)
Danny Day, Eprida, Alternative Energy Technology Innovations, May 12, 2005

EPRIDA PyrolysisEPRIDA Pyrolysis

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