Brazil

traditional beehive kiln
advanced beehive kiln

Advanced Brazilian Beehive Kiln
Ken Newcomber, Katoomba Working Group, Rio de Janerio, Brazil 2001

Traditional Brazilian Brick Beehive Kiln Used in about 90% of Brazilian Charcoal operations
Efficiency:
About 4m3 wood for 1m3 Charcoal

Improved Brazilian Brick Kiln:

Advanced Brazilian Beehive Kiln
Collects Tars and Pyrolytic Oils in smoke –
minimizes local air pollution. Efficiency: Better than
2m3 Wood per m3 charcoal

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BBC: The Secret of El Dorado
December 19, 2006

In 1542, the Spanish Conquistador, Francisco de Orellana ventured along the Rio Negro, one of the Amazon Basin's great rivers. Hunting a hidden city of gold, his expedition found a network of farms, villages and even huge walled cities. At least that is what he told an eager audience on his return to Spain.

"No one ever saw again what Orellana described"
Dr James Petersen, University of Vermont
The prospect of gold drew others to explore the region, but none could find the people of whom the first Conquistadors had spoken. The missionaries who followed a century later reported finding just isolated tribes of hunter-gatherers. Orellana's story seemed to be no more than a fanciful myth.

A proven liar?

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Charcoal as Soil Conditioner Studies in the humid Tropics
Christoph Steiner1, W. G. Teixeira2, J. Lehmann3and W. Zech1

1Institute of Soil Science, University of Bayreuth, Germany
2EmbrapaAmazoniaOcidental, Manaus, Brazil
3 Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, USA

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Black C Effects on the Biogeochemical Cycling of Soil Nutrients and Organic C in Amazonian Dark Earths (Terra Preta De Indo)
Biqing Liang, Graduate Student, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 9/21/2006,Crop and Soil Sciences Seminar Series, Cornell University. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Abstract:

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Isolating Unique Bacteria from Terra Preta Systems: Using Culturing and Molecular Tools for Characterizing Microbial Life in Terra Preta
O'Neill, Brendan Grossman, Julie Tsai, S.M. Gomes, Jose Elias Garcia, Carlos Eduardo Solomon, Dawit Liang, Biqing Lehmann, Johannes Thies, Janice
Poster presentation from the 2006 World Congress of Soil Science in Philadelphia, PA
16-Aug-2006

The greater fertility of Terra Preta (TP) soils is thought to be due to their high black carbon (BC) content, which contributes to increased nutrient and moisture retention, and increased pH.

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Terra Preta de Indio
Johannes Lehmann. Soil Biogeochemistry, Cornell University January 2007

"Terra Preta de Indio" (Amazonian Dark Earths; earlier also called "Terra Preta do Indio" or Indian Black Earth) is the local name for certain dark earths in the Brazilian Amazon region. These dark earths occur, however, in several countries in South America and probably beyond. They were most likely created by pre-Columbian Indians from 500 to 2500 years B.P. and abandoned after the invasion of Europeans (Smith, 1980; Woods et al., 2000). However, many questions are still unanswered with respect to their origin, distribution, and properties.

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Energy & Agricultural Carbon Utilization: Sustainable Alternatives to Sequestration
University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, June 10-11, 2004

Oral Presentations
http://www.eprida.com/eacu/orals.htm

Discovery and Awareness of Anthropogenic Amazonian Dark Earths (Terra Preta)
Bill Denevan - Prof. Emeritus, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, WI USA

Explorations of Pre-Columbian Agricultural Landscapes in the Amazon
Clark Erickson - Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA USA

The Secrets of Making Terra Preta Soils

Black Carbon Increases Cation Exchange Capacity in Soils
Liang et al. Soil Sci Soc Am J.2006; 70: 1719-1730

Authors:
B. Liang, J. Lehmann, D. Solomon, J. Kinyangi, J. Grossman, B. O'Neill, J. O. Skjemstad, J. Thies, F. J. Luiz

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I INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ANTHROPOGENIC TERRA PRETA SOILS [NOVOTEL], MANAUS, BRAZIL, 13-19 JULY 2002.
Organized by INPA, EMBRAPA, UA, MPEG, USP

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