Weed composition and cover after three years of soil fertility management in the central Brazilian Amazon: Compost, fertilizer, manure and charcoal applications

Charcoal as Soil Conditioner Studies in the humid Tropics
Christoph Steiner1, W. G. Teixeira2, J. Lehmann3and W. Zech1

1Institute of Soil Science, University of Bayreuth, Germany
2EmbrapaAmazoniaOcidental, Manaus, Brazil
3 Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, USA


Poster: Slash and Char - Soil charcoal amendments maintain soil fertility and create a carbon sink
Christoph Steiner*1, 2, Wenceslau Teixeira2, Thomas Nehls1, Johannes Lehmann3, and Wolfgang Zech1.
1 2 3 Institute of Soil Science, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany; Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, 69011-970 Manaus, Brazil; Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
* corresponding author: Christop@cpaa.embrapa.br, Christoph.Steiner@uni-bayreuth.de

Bio-char (Black Carbon) Stability and Stabilization in Soil
Johannes Lehmann, Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY 14850 and Saran Sohi, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Isolating Unique Bacteria from Terra Preta Systems: Using Culturing and Molecular Tools for Characterizing Microbial Life in Terra Preta
O'Neill, Brendan Grossman, Julie Tsai, S.M. Gomes, Jose Elias Garcia, Carlos Eduardo Solomon, Dawit Liang, Biqing Lehmann, Johannes Thies, Janice
Poster presentation from the 2006 World Congress of Soil Science in Philadelphia, PA

The greater fertility of Terra Preta (TP) soils is thought to be due to their high black carbon (BC) content, which contributes to increased nutrient and moisture retention, and increased pH.


Terra Preta de Indio
Johannes Lehmann. Soil Biogeochemistry, Cornell University January 2007

"Terra Preta de Indio" (Amazonian Dark Earths; earlier also called "Terra Preta do Indio" or Indian Black Earth) is the local name for certain dark earths in the Brazilian Amazon region. These dark earths occur, however, in several countries in South America and probably beyond. They were most likely created by pre-Columbian Indians from 500 to 2500 years B.P. and abandoned after the invasion of Europeans (Smith, 1980; Woods et al., 2000). However, many questions are still unanswered with respect to their origin, distribution, and properties.


Introduction: Bio-char: the new frontier
Johannes Lehmann, Soil Biogeochemistry, Cornell University

Inspired by the fascinating properties of Terra Preta de Indio, bio-char is a soil amendment that has the potential to revolutionize concepts of soil management. While "discovered" may not be the right word, as bio-char (also called charcoal or biomass-derived black carbon) has been used in traditional agricultural practices as well as in modern horticulture, never before has evidence been accumulating that demonstrates so convincingly that bio-char has very specific and unique properties that make it stand out among the opportunities for sustainable soil management.

Black Carbon Increases Cation Exchange Capacity in Soils
Liang et al. Soil Sci Soc Am J.2006; 70: 1719-1730

B. Liang, J. Lehmann, D. Solomon, J. Kinyangi, J. Grossman, B. O'Neill, J. O. Skjemstad, J. Thies, F. J. Luiz


Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management
Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Bruno Glaser, William I. Woods

This book publication emerged from a meeting in Benicassim, Spain, in 2001. A group of enthusiastic scientists from diverse backgrounds decided that it is time to present a comprehensive overview over research on the so-called "Terra Preta de Indio", or Amazonian Dark Earths. Authors were invited to cover a wide variety of aspects around these fascinating soils, and met what became the first International Workshop on Terra Preta de Indio, in Manaus in July 2002. The frequent interactions and the workshop meeting ensured that this publication became a major text book on Amazonian Dark Earths. It is published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in The Netherlands

Table of Contents


Foreword, by W. Sombroek

Chapter 1: Development of Anthrosol Research, by W.I. Woods

Chapter 2: Historical Perspectives on Amazonian Dark Earths, by T.P. Myers, W.M. Denevan, A. Winklerprins, A. Porro


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