Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Bioresour Technol, Volume 98, Number 13, p.2459-64 (2007)
Keywords:Animals, Carbon/ chemistry, Chickens, Manure, X-Ray Diffraction
Physico-chemical properties of a bioorganic char were modified by pyrolysis in the presence of NaOH, and with subsequent physical activation of carbonaceous species with CO2 a value-added activated carbon was fabricated. Bioorganic char is produced as a co-product during the production of bio-fuel from the pyrolysis of chicken litter. Untreated char contains approximately 37 wt% of C and approximately 43-45 wt% of inorganic minerals containing K, Ca, Fe, P, Cu, Mg, and Si. Carbonization and chemical activation of the char at 600 degrees C in the presence of NaOH in forming gas (4% H2 balanced with Ar) produced mainly demineralized activated carbon having BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) surface area of 486 m2/g and average pore size of 2.8 nm. Further physical activation with CO2 at 800 degrees C for 30 min resulted in activated carbon with BET surface area of 788 m2/g and average pore size of 2.2 nm. The mineral content was 10 wt%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the latter activation process reduced the pyrrolic- and/or pyridonic-N, increased pyridinic-N and formed quaternary-N at the expense of pyrrolic- and/or pyridonic-N found in the untreated char.
Using Smart Source ParsingSep; Epub 2006 Nov 13