Biochar in the Soil

Potential of carbon sequestration by carbonizing wood residue from industrial tree plantation as a Clean Development Mechanism project in the Kyoto Mechanism
Okimori,Y.Takahashi,F. Ogawa,M. (KANSO) Yamanaka,T.(Kansai Electric Power) U of Georgia Presentation 2004

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Use of Murayoshi Bincho Charcoal for Flowerbeds and Fields
Murayoshi "Bincho" (hard white) charcoal, product promotion and recommendations for use, Okinawa, Japan

Murayoshi Bincho Products

The History of Bincho Charcoal

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Contributions of Pinus Ponderosa Charcoal to Soil Chemical and Physical Properties
Christopher M. Briggs in Briggs, Breiner, Graham Pinus Ponderosa Charcoal 9 May 2005

Abstract
Charcoal results from the incomplete burning of plant material and is found in most
soil surface horizons, but little is known about its effects on soil properties. The objectives of this
study were (1) to determine the chemical and physical properties of ponderosa pine charcoal

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Contributions of Pinus Ponderosa Charcoal to Soil Chemical and Physical Properties
Christopher M. Briggs in Briggs, Breiner, Graham Pinus Ponderosa Charcoal 9 May 2005

Abstract
Charcoal results from the incomplete burning of plant material and is found in most
soil surface horizons, but little is known about its effects on soil properties. The objectives of this
study were (1) to determine the chemical and physical properties of ponderosa pine charcoal

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Indonesia: Survey on the Effect of Charcoal to Tree Growth and Charcoal Production in West Kalimantan (1.3 mb pdf)
Carbon Fixing Forest Management project
Demonstration Study on Carbon Fixing Forest Management in Indonesia
Cooperation Project between Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA), Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Collaboration with Yayasan Dian Tama December 2005

FOREWORD

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Indonesia: Survey on the Effect of Charcoal to Tree Growth and Charcoal Production in West Kalimantan (1.3 mb pdf)
Carbon Fixing Forest Management project
Demonstration Study on Carbon Fixing Forest Management in Indonesia
Cooperation Project between Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA), Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Collaboration with Yayasan Dian Tama December 2005

FOREWORD

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Long-Term Black Carbon (Bio-Char) Dynamics in Cultivated Soil
Binh Thanh Nguyen, Johannes Lehmann, and James Kinyangi. Cornell Univ, 1022 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853
18th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS) July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Bio-char (Black Carbon) Stability and Stabilization in Soil
Johannes Lehmann, Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY 14850 and Saran Sohi, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Bio-char (Black Carbon) Stability and Stabilization in Soil
Johannes Lehmann, Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY 14850 and Saran Sohi, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom
18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Black C Effects on the Biogeochemical Cycling of Soil Nutrients and Organic C in Amazonian Dark Earths (Terra Preta De Indo)
Biqing Liang, Graduate Student, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 9/21/2006,Crop and Soil Sciences Seminar Series, Cornell University. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

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Learning to use wood charcoal in farming at a Northwestern Washington native plant nursery.
Richard Haard, Fourth Corner Nurseries, Washington, Febuary 20, 2007
My motivation for preparing this post is to be able to use this motivate discussion of charcoal as a soil additive. Trying to do this work at a very busy nursery that is perhaps pushing their production factor too high (over 80%) is rather frustrating as experiments have gotten over ruled by planning changes, wiped out by harvest before I can read the data and the conditions set up for the experiment just do not work. However, I have been encouraged however and I am now using hardwood charcoal as a carrier for natural inocculum as a matter of routine.
Fourth Corner Nurseries is a wholesale supplier of native plant species, located on 77 acres in the coastal lowlands of northwestern Washington, USA. With approximately 40 acres under cultivation, we produce two/three million direct-seeded, field-grown, bare-root native plants annually. Our principal crop is individually seed-sourced, bare-root deciduous trees and shrubs, herbaceous perennials, grasses and emergent species such as sedges, cattails and rushes for environmental restoration purposes. Our mission is to sustainably grow plants while supporting workers and their families who depend on the farm for their economic subsistence. Use of surplus biomass from our willow coppice field and other materials is our alternative energy vision.
Aerial view of our farm

Aerial View of Fourth Corner Nurseries

Aerial View of Fourth Corner Nurseries
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Learning to use wood charcoal in farming at a Northwestern Washington native plant nursery.
Richard Haard, Fourth Corner Nurseries, Washington, Febuary 20, 2007
My motivation for preparing this post is to be able to use this motivate discussion of charcoal as a soil additive. Trying to do this work at a very busy nursery that is perhaps pushing their production factor too high (over 80%) is rather frustrating as experiments have gotten over ruled by planning changes, wiped out by harvest before I can read the data and the conditions set up for the experiment just do not work. However, I have been encouraged however and I am now using hardwood charcoal as a carrier for natural inocculum as a matter of routine.
Fourth Corner Nurseries is a wholesale supplier of native plant species, located on 77 acres in the coastal lowlands of northwestern Washington, USA. With approximately 40 acres under cultivation, we produce two/three million direct-seeded, field-grown, bare-root native plants annually. Our principal crop is individually seed-sourced, bare-root deciduous trees and shrubs, herbaceous perennials, grasses and emergent species such as sedges, cattails and rushes for environmental restoration purposes. Our mission is to sustainably grow plants while supporting workers and their families who depend on the farm for their economic subsistence. Use of surplus biomass from our willow coppice field and other materials is our alternative energy vision.
Aerial view of our farm

Aerial View of Fourth Corner Nurseries

Aerial View of Fourth Corner Nurseries
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Learning to use wood charcoal in farming at a Northwestern Washington native plant nursery.
Richard Haard, Fourth Corner Nurseries, Washington, Febuary 20, 2007
My motivation for preparing this post is to be able to use this motivate discussion of charcoal as a soil additive. Trying to do this work at a very busy nursery that is perhaps pushing their production factor too high (over 80%) is rather frustrating as experiments have gotten over ruled by planning changes, wiped out by harvest before I can read the data and the conditions set up for the experiment just do not work. However, I have been encouraged however and I am now using hardwood charcoal as a carrier for natural inocculum as a matter of routine.
Fourth Corner Nurseries is a wholesale supplier of native plant species, located on 77 acres in the coastal lowlands of northwestern Washington, USA. With approximately 40 acres under cultivation, we produce two/three million direct-seeded, field-grown, bare-root native plants annually. Our principal crop is individually seed-sourced, bare-root deciduous trees and shrubs, herbaceous perennials, grasses and emergent species such as sedges, cattails and rushes for environmental restoration purposes. Our mission is to sustainably grow plants while supporting workers and their families who depend on the farm for their economic subsistence. Use of surplus biomass from our willow coppice field and other materials is our alternative energy vision.
Aerial view of our farm

Aerial View of Fourth Corner Nurseries

Aerial View of Fourth Corner Nurseries
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Richard Haard: Affinity of fungi and crop plant roots to charcoal
Richard Haard, February 12, 2007

The image below illustrates the affinity of fungi and crop plant roots to charcoal.

Charcoal placed in a fertile garden for a few months showing how crop roots (Swiss chard) and fungi are attached to this medium as habitat
Charcoal placed in a fertile garden for a few months showing how crop roots (Swiss chard) and fungi are attached to this medium as habitat
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Establishment and Management of Prairie Grasses
Royal Horticultural Society Research, UK, 2007

Establishment of North American prairie grasses by field sowing was investigated at the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley. This experiment is part of a larger programme of work to investigate the use of North American prairie wildflowers and grasses as a style of planting in gardens and parks in Britain, which is a modern, informal and low maintenance. It is particularly appropriate for amenity planting.

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Effects of Soil Microbial Fertility by Charcoal in Soil
Makoto Ogawa, Kansai Environment Engineering Center, Kansai Electric Power Co. Ltd, UGA Conference 2004

Characteristics and Function of Charcoal

1.Porous substance with high water and air holding capacity; Suitable habitat for some microbes and plant growth, good material for soil amendment, absorption of chemicals and humidity control

2.High alkalinity ; Neutralization of acidic soil and improvement of chemical components of soil and

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Springer-Verlag and Kluwer Academic Publishers have obviously done well with the first two books. Now they want a third. At $400+ a pop I would want a new volume too !
michael

Call for Contributions

Black carbon in a temperate mixed-grass savanna
X. Daia, T.W. Boutton a,*, B. Glaser b, R.J. Ansley c, W. Zech b
Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37 (2005) 1879

USGS Soil Carbon Research Dr. Mark Waldrop
September 28, 2006

HOW DOES VARIATION IN MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND FUNCTION AFFECT CARBON CYCLING PROCESSES WITHIN BOREAL FORESTS?

WHAT CONTROLS MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AND HOW DOES MICROBIAL DIVERSITY AFFECT SOIL FUNCTION?

IS BLACK CARBON DECOMPOSED BY SOIL MICROORGANISMS?

ARE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN PERMAFROST SOILS FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT THAN SURFACE SOILS? WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR DECOMPOSITION OF PERMAFROST CARBON?

HOW DOES A MOISTURE GRADIENT AND CLIMATE MANIPULATION AFFECT THE BIOMASS OF C CYCLING MICROBIAL FUNCTIONAL GROUPS?

An Investigation of Black Carbon Degradation Potential in a Forest Soil Environment
William, H. C.; Lee, E.; Grannas, A.; Hatcher, P. G.
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2003, abstract #B21B-0711, 12/2003

Abstract
Except for emission processes, there is currently little understanding of the mechanisms driving the degradation and biogeochemical cycling of black carbon (BC). Considering current estimates of the global BC pool (>2,500x1015gC), and its annual emission rates (55-205x1012 gC/year), BC represents roughly 16% of Earth's actively cycling organic carbon. Without significant chemical and biological degradation pathways, all of the actively cycling carbon on earth would have accumulated as charcoal in

An Investigation of Black Carbon Degradation Potential in a Forest Soil Environment
William, H. C.; Lee, E.; Grannas, A.; Hatcher, P. G.
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2003, abstract #B21B-0711, 12/2003

Abstract
Except for emission processes, there is currently little understanding of the mechanisms driving the degradation and biogeochemical cycling of black carbon (BC). Considering current estimates of the global BC pool (>2,500x1015gC), and its annual emission rates (55-205x1012 gC/year), BC represents roughly 16% of Earth's actively cycling organic carbon. Without significant chemical and biological degradation pathways, all of the actively cycling carbon on earth would have accumulated as charcoal in

Black Carbon from Rice Residues as Soil Amendment and for Carbon Sequestration
Stephan M. Haefele 1, J.K. Ladha 1, and Yothin Konboon 2.
(1) International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, 4031 Laguna, Philippines, (2) Ubon Rice Research Center, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand
18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

On highly weathered soils in tropical and subtropical climates, maintenance of soil organic matter is essential to sustain system productivity and avoid rapid soil degradation. But climatic conditions as well as soil characteristics favor the rapid decomposition of organic matter. However, several recent studies indicated that black carbon, the product of incomplete combustion of organic material, could combine characteristics highly beneficial for soil nutrient dynamics with high stability against chemical and microbial breakdown. Lasting soil amelioration by incorporation of black carbon from wooden plants was proposed based on the beneficial evidence from

Isolating Unique Bacteria from Terra Preta Systems: Using Culturing and Molecular Tools for Characterizing Microbial Life in Terra Preta
O'Neill, Brendan Grossman, Julie Tsai, S.M. Gomes, Jose Elias Garcia, Carlos Eduardo Solomon, Dawit Liang, Biqing Lehmann, Johannes Thies, Janice
Poster presentation from the 2006 World Congress of Soil Science in Philadelphia, PA
16-Aug-2006

The greater fertility of Terra Preta (TP) soils is thought to be due to their high black carbon (BC) content, which contributes to increased nutrient and moisture retention, and increased pH.

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Isolating Unique Bacteria from Terra Preta Systems: Using Culturing and Molecular Tools for Characterizing Microbial Life in Terra Preta
O'Neill, Brendan Grossman, Julie Tsai, S.M. Gomes, Jose Elias Garcia, Carlos Eduardo Solomon, Dawit Liang, Biqing Lehmann, Johannes Thies, Janice
Poster presentation from the 2006 World Congress of Soil Science in Philadelphia, PA
16-Aug-2006

The greater fertility of Terra Preta (TP) soils is thought to be due to their high black carbon (BC) content, which contributes to increased nutrient and moisture retention, and increased pH.

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