Biochar in the Soil

Microcatchment Rainwater Harvesting Systems: Zai Planting Holes Section 2.1
Olufunke Cofie, Boubacar Barry, Deborah Bossio, International Water Management Institute, Ghana and Sri Lanka, Nobember 22-25, 2004

[img_assist|nid=391|title=Zai Planting pit, Sandy Soil, Niger|desc=|link=node|align=left|width=400|height=293]

"Human Resources as a driver of Bright Spots: the case of rainwater harvesting in West Africa", Conference Paper 19, NEPAD/IGAD Regional Conference: Agricultural Successes in the Greater Horn of Africa, Nairobi 22-25, 2004

2.1 Micro-catchment rainwater harvesting systems

Improving wheat production with deep banded Oil Mallee Charcoal in Western Australia (2.7 MB pdf)
Paul Blackwell, Syd Shea, Paul Storer, Zakaria Solaiman, Mike Kerkmans, and Ian Stanley, IAI April 2007

[img_assist|nid=385|title=Deep Banded Mallee Charcoal|desc=|link=node|align=center|width=400|height=295]

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Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds

Abstract

This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated carbon. Activated carbon has been used in many bioassays as an adsorbate to clean aqueous solutions.

We used aqueous extracts from young leaves of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull and Vaccinium myrtillus (L.) as phytotoxin sources in two different concentrations (10 and 14 gr. of dried leaves in 100 ml distilled water). Germination of pine seeds was prevented by the higher concentration of both species, while the lower ones did not show significantly reduced germination. Both ericaceous species showed a very similar potential to prevent germination of Scots pine seeds.

The charcoal effect in Boreal forests: mechanisms and ecological consequences
D. A. Wardle, O. Zackrisson, M.-C. Nilsson, Department of Forest Vegetation Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, S-901 83 Ume

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Key Ecological Function of Charcoal from Wildfire in the Boreal Forest
Olle Zackrisson, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson, David A. Wardle, Oikos, Vol. 77, No. 1 (Oct., 1996), pp. 10-19
doi:10.2307/3545580

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Terra Preta Magic Soil of the Lost Amazon
Allan Balliett, February 2007 as presented in TERRA, The Earth Renewal and Restoration Alliance

Nicely presented and illustrated version of Baillet's review by David Yarrow, webmaster.

Charcoal from Comets, Asteroids and Wildfires
Tom Miles, May 28, 2007

There is speculation that pockets of charcoal that resulted in enriched soil came variously from comets and asteroids and resulting wildfires, as well as intentional burning. The latest comet event has been reported as 12,900 years ago in North America. See Science Daily:
Did A Comet Hit Great Lakes Region, Fragment Human Populations, 12,900 Years Ago? May 23, 2007

and National Geographic News:
Comet Wiped Out Early North American Culture, Animals, Study Says May 23,2007

Potential extraterrestrial causes of terra preta formation are discussed in the literature from Cornell University and elsewhere. It has also been debated on the Hypography Science Forum.

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Alternatives to Methyl Bromide in Southern Forest Tree Nurseries
Clark W. Lantz, 1Nursery/Tree Improvement Specialist, Cooperative Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Atlanta, GA, 1997

Forest tree nurseries in the southern US are growing an average of 1.2 billion seedlings per year or about 80% of
the total seedling production in the US. This annual nursery production supports a planting program of
approximately 1.8 million acres-an area about the size of the states of Delaware and Rhode Island combined.
Fumigation is practiced by 89% of these nurseries for both disease and weed control. The chemical of choice has
been methyl bromide, applied every year by some nursery managers and every second year by others.

A few
nurseries have used fumigation only on an "as-needed" basis to deal with chronic disease problems. One nursery
has successfully grown high quality annual seedling crops without fumigation for 16 years. This nursery has
emphasized intensive soil management with bark mulch and aggressive weed control.

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Soil Analysis: Interpreting a Soil Test for lawns
John R. Street, Maurice E. Watson, William E. Pound, Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet, HYG-4028

Factsheet. This publication will help you interpret the recommendations provided by The Ohio State University's soil testing laboratory. The facility is termed the Research Extension Analytical Lab (R.E.A.L.) and is an important facility for testing lawn soils.

Soil Analysis: Interpreting a Soil Test for lawns
John R. Street, Maurice E. Watson, William E. Pound, Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet, HYG-4028

Factsheet. This publication will help you interpret the recommendations provided by The Ohio State University's soil testing laboratory. The facility is termed the Research Extension Analytical Lab (R.E.A.L.) and is an important facility for testing lawn soils.

Introduction to Soil Science
T.S. Tollefson, University of Saskatchewan, CA SCSR Open Courseware 41/240

This course is designed for students in the Diploma in Agriculture program and first and second year students in the B.S.A. program. Graduate students in the Soil Science may also find the course useful background for their qualifying or comprehensive exams.

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Wisconsin Procedures for Soil Testing, Plant Analysis and Feed and Forage Analysis
Editor: John Peters, Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison(Compiled December, 2006)

This document provides analytical procedures on the following:

Soil Sample Preparation
Internal Check System
Soil pH and Sikora Lime Requirement
Available Phosphorus
Available Potassium
Organic Matter
Weight Loss-on-Ignition (LOI 360o)
B, Mn, Ca/Mg, SO4-S, and NO3-N

Bone Charcoal in Soil Enhancement Applications
Ebonex Corporation, www.ebonex.com,. Michigan, USA

Bone Charcoal Fines are derived from the manufacture of New Animal Charcoal - a carbonaceous adsorbent widely used in the Sugar Refining and Water Treatment Industries. The product is manufactured from selected grades of cattle bone carbonized at temperatures between 700oC and 1000oC for a total period of around 12 hours. Hence, the final product is virtually sterile, suitable and, indeed, safe for use in food industry applications.

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Charcoal Experimental Plots
Rich Haard and Larry Williams at Fourth Corner Nurseries, Bellingham, Washington, May 6, 2007
[G2:366]

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Dynamics of Soil Nutrients in the Rooting Zone with Reference to the Mechanisms of Nutrient Supply in Soil.
Junta Yanai1, Takashi Kosaki2, and Hidekazu Yamada1. (1) Kyoto Prefectural Univ, Shimogamo Hangi-cho 1-5, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8522, Japan, (2) Kyoto Univ, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan
18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006, Philadelphia, PA, USA

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Dynamics of Soil Nutrients in the Rooting Zone with Reference to the Mechanisms of Nutrient Supply in Soil.
Junta Yanai1, Takashi Kosaki2, and Hidekazu Yamada1. (1) Kyoto Prefectural Univ, Shimogamo Hangi-cho 1-5, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8522, Japan, (2) Kyoto Univ, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan
18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006, Philadelphia, PA, USA

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